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Causes of Meningitis in Adults: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Posted on : March 6, 2023
Causes Of Meningitis In Adults

Bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Neisseria meningitidis, gonococcus and meningococcus

Causes of Meningitis in Adults: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment – Meningitis refers to a disease of the membranes that cover the brain as well as the spinal cord, known as the meninges. Meningitis may affect anybody, even adults. However, the danger is increased in persons with immune systems that are compromised and also in young children. Therefore, what is the causes of meningitis in adults? What are the symptoms? And how to treat them?

Meningitis is frequently caused by infections such as bacteria, viruses, as well as fungi, thus the treatment a person gets will differ. Keep reading or visit BIMC Kuta to discover more on adult meningitis, including its symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

 

Causes of Meningitis in Adults: Infectious and Non-infectious

Meningitis can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungus, and parasites. However, non-infectious meningitis occurs when a pathogen does not constitute the cause of meningitis.

  • Infectious

Viruses: Viral meningitis is caused by non-polio enteroviruses that are comparable to a common cold. Normally, these viruses are benign and gone on their own, but rarely, meningitis forms as a consequence. Mumps, measles, chickenpox, and the flu are some other viruses which can cause meningitis.

Bacteria: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, group B streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, as well as Listeria monocytogenes are among the most prevalent bacteria which cause meningitis. A few of these bacteria are spreading through the contaminated food, but most travel from one individual to another.

Fungi: The primary forms of fungus which cause meningitis are Coccidioides immitis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida. Such fungi may be found in wood, dirt, or pigeon droppings.

  • Non-infectious

Non-infectious meningitis can occur in adults as a result of a medical disease such as cancer. Additional non-infectious reasons include medication, lupus, head injury, and surgery on the brain.

 

Symptoms of Meningitis in Adults

Meningitis symptoms vary among children and adults. Symptoms may not usually appear all at once. A people’s well-being will normally deteriorate gradually. A stiff neck, confusion, aches and pains, fever, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity towards bright light, and seizures are all symptoms of meningitis.

 

What is the difference between meningitis between children and adults?

Meningitis affects both adults and children equally. In extremely young children, however, symptoms may show differently. An adult, for instance, might complain about a tight neck, yet a new born may arch their back or cry. New-borns may not usually arrive with hypothermia or fever, and they exhibit more modest indications of illness overall.

 

Meningitis’ Long-Term Effects

While many individuals recover completely from meningitis, others fail to recover. A person’s recovery is usually determined by a variety of circumstances, including how soon they get treatment and the severity of the infection. For example, bacterial meningitis represents the deadliest type of the ailment and can cause long-term health difficulties. Meningitis can also cause the following significant complications:

  • balancing problems
  • arthritis
  • epilepsy
  • kidney damage
  • partial or total vision loss
  • partial or total hearing loss
  • amputation of limbs
  • problems of memory
  • and learning difficulties

 

Adult Meningitis Diagnosis

To establish a meningitis diagnosis, a doctor will first perform a physical examination, looking for symptoms such as meningeal irritation, back discomfort, and light sensitivity. They will also inspect a person’s skin attentively to look for discoloration as well as rashes.

A doctor will ask for a sample of the person’s cerebrospinal fluid after the physical exam to verify the existence of meningitis-causing bacteria, viruses, or fungus. A doctor will also typically not start any treatment unless they are certain of the reason. In an emergency, they will presume a person gets bacterial meningitis and treat them with antibiotics right away.

 

Adult Meningitis Treatment

Current treatment procedures state that in situations of bacterial meningitis, any doctor would examine the age as well as medical history before prescribing an antibiotic. Adults between 18-49 years will normally be given either vancomycin or ceftriaxone by a needle into a person’s vein, or intravenously (IV). Individuals over the age of 50, as well as those with compromised immune systems, will be given vancomycin IV or ceftriaxone IV, although a doctor could also recommend ampicillin IV.

Steroid treatment may be used to alleviate meningeal irritation. Further study is needed to evaluate whether steroids are indeed an effective and safe treatment for bacterial meningitis. In the cases with fungal meningitis, the doctor will prescribe antifungal medications to treat the illness. The majority of cases of viral meningitis recover without treatment.

Come and visit BIMC Hospital Kuta to get the sophisticated treatment for any kind of meningitis with our best specialist doctors with trustful experience.

 

Recovery Duration

Individual recovery periods vary depending on the aetiology of meningitis:

  • Viral meningitis: Most people can recover in 7-10 days without any long-term problems.
  • Bacterial meningitis: The recovery durations vary; however, some people can start feeling better in as short as 2-3 days. But, if they encounter major issues, they may require long-term treatment.
  • Fungal meningitis: Individuals with underlying health issues, such as cancer, might require long-term therapy to recover against fungal meningitis.

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